2012 Handout 9 – Asanga’s Four Aspects of Taking Refuge by, #1 - Knowing Good Qualities of: I. Buddha’s, cont., (4) Enlightened Activities. II. Dharma. III. Sangha. #2 - Knowing the distinctions (of the three Jewels) based on: (a) Their Defining Characteristics; (b) Their Activities; (c) Our Devotion; (d) Our Practice.
Handout 10 (rev. 05/03/12) - Asanga’s Four Aspects of Taking Refuge by, #2 - Knowing the distinctions (of the three Jewels) based on, cont.: (e) Recollection; (f) How to Increase Merit. #3 - Through Commitment. #4 - Refusing to acknowledge other refuges. Introduction to IBD’s texts by Panchen Sonam Drakpa: General Meaning (སྤྱི་དོན།) and debate manual, Decisive Analysis (མཐའ་དཔྱོད།). General Meaning: 5 Topics explain Three Refuge Objects. #1 - Three-fold explanation of Necessity for Scriptures' presentation of Three Refuge Objects: (i) Buddha Jewel; (ii) Dharma Jewel.
Track 1 - Dharmakaya – categorizing Four or Three Bodies/Kayas of Buddha:
Four Bodies / Kayas of Buddha are (all) Dharmakaya (Truth Body - chos-ku - ཆོས་སྐུ་):
- Buddha’s own benefit kayas appear only to Buddhas:
- Jnanakaya (ye shes chos sku - ཡེ་ཤེས་ཆོས་སྐུ་) - Wisdom Truth Body (Mental Consciousness of Buddha);
- Svabhavikaya (ngo bo nyid sku - ངོ་བོ་ཉིད་སྐུ་) - Nature Truth Body (Cessations & Emptiness of Mental Consciousness of Buddha).
- Buddha’s others’ benefit kayas appear to Sentient Beings:
- Sambhogakaya (longs spyod rdzogs pa'i sku - ལོངས་སྤྱོད་རྫོགས་པའི་སྐུ་) Complete Enjoyment Body (Emanated Buddha Person seen by Arya sentient beings).
- Nirmanakaya (sprul pa'i sku - སྤྲུལ་པའི་སྐུ་) – Emanation Body (Emanated Buddha Persons emanated for benefit of all sentient beings).
Why “Jnanakaya” rather than “Dharmakaya”?
Three Bodies of the Buddha are all Dharmakaya.
Several Charts of Buddhas Kayas were prepared by Geshe Wangmo for the Spring 2010 Class: 2010 Chart 4 - Buddha Bodies.
Track 2 - Why is the Dharmakaya, as the over-all category of the Four Kayas, said to be permanent?
- Svabhavikaya, Nature Truth Body is permanent. The other Kayas are impermanent, i.e., “Not all instances of the Dharmakaya are permanent.”
- Permanent phenomena are static, unchanging, but not necessarily eternal.
- From Collected Topics course: an overall conceptual category that has both permanent and impermanent instances is permanent.
- Can something impermanent arise from or depend upon something that is permanent?
- The Emptiness (lack of inherent existence) of mental consciousness (permanent phenomena) is responsible for Enlightenment of Buddhas.
- Their defining characteristics (e.g., the Buddha Jewel has actualized the fullest potential of the mental consciousness by removing everything that obscures it: Buddhism is about removing obstacles); . . .
- Danger of violating Refuge precepts by abandoning the Dharma when we abandon or makecertain kinds of criticisms of other Sangha traditions....
- Motivation, positive actions (e.g., Rejoicing in others accomplishments and well-being), objects of activities.
- Two aspects to accumulating merit: merit one receives due to (1) one’s motivation and action, and (2) benefiting the recipient. . . .
- Way to Take Refuge by Refusing to Acknowledge other Refuges means not taking refuge in a teacher or a teaching that contradicts the Three Jewels respecting the Ten Non-Virtues (e.g., practicing animal sacrifice); or for the purpose of attaining Self-Liberation or Enlightenment (if other traditions do not teach those goals, their teachings will not lead to those results).
- Handouts are translations of the (Refuge sections) from the two texts by Panchen Sonam Drakpa used (for this course) at IBD and Drepung Loseling Monastery:
- The General Meaning (Tibetan: སྤྱི་དོན། - chi toen); and
- Decisive Analysis (Tibetan: མཐའ་དཔྱོད། - tha-choe) which presents objects of negation for debate).
NOTES of Class 8 (April 25) rough draft transcript of class offered for what it's worth.
This is the 8th class of the Spring 2012 term Perfection of Wisdom course
which addresses Refuge, the 3rd sub-topic of the 2nd Topic
(Mahayana Practice Instructions) of Chapter 1 of Maitreya's
Ornament for Clear Realizations - Abhisamayalamkara.