DOWNLOAD Handouts referred to in Class. (based on Je Tsong Khapa's Illumination of the Thought):
2011 Handout 18 - a) Explaining, by Means of the Category of the Two Truths, that All Phenomena Have Two Entities; b) Another Presentation of the Two Truths.
2011 Handout 19 - Explaining the Category of the Conventional Relative to the World: Chart of Chapter 1 of the Ornament for Clear Realizations' Ten Topic & the 10 Mahayana Practice Instructions of the 2d Topic, and more.
ALL SPRING 2011 HANDOUTS & CHARTS are HERE.
DOWNLOAD MP3 TRACKS:
Track 1 - Review Class Schedule and last Class - Handout 18.
- What does it mean to be a Buddha?
- Handout 18 - How the Two Truths Relate to each other:
- Every existent must be one of the Two Truths.
- If it is one of the Two Truths, it must be an existent
- How do the table and its Ultimate Truth relate? The lack of True Existence of a form (table) makes it possible for this table to exist; the table is a manifestation of its own Emptiness. Similarly, any problem/discomfort we experience ...
- e.g., assertions that
- Ultimate Truth cannot be known (because 'It is Beyond ...");
- Everyone has already realized Wisdom.
- Exhaustive Categories (of existents) that are of Definite Number, e.g.,
- Being One / being Different,
- Two Truths Category of the Two Truths is Definite in Number (no more than 2 nor less)
- i.e., when you explicitly negate one/you establish the other: by Negating True Existence of pot, the Emptiness of pot is realized.
- Refuting that, e.g., my hand is not an Object of Knowledge (i.e., a wrong view of Ultimate Analysis):
- If you negate that the hand (Truly Existent) exists among its parts, then you do not find anything (in that Ultimate Analysis). However, you are not subjecting the Emptiness of the hand to such Ultimate Analysis; therefore, something is found. Negating the True Existence of the Emptiness of the hand, one finds the Emptiness of the Emptiness of the hand.
- Emptiness and Emptiness of True Existence are the same thing, so when True Existence of hand is negated, its Emptiness is established, i.e., the absence of True Existence of the hand.
- Take the "lack of True Existence" of the hand, itself, and negate its True Existence, to establish the Emptiness of the Emptiness of the True Existence of the hand.
- When a mind realizes sprout is a Conventional Truth, it implicitly realizes sprout is not an Ultimate Truth.
- Conclude presentation of Handout 18.
- Deceptive / Non-Deceptive Phenomena (e.g., table & reflection of face in mirror.
- Presentation of Middle Way Autonomy (Madhyamika-Svatantrika) tenets (Handout 19): In other words, phenomena exist because they appear to a non-defective mind and cannot exist without appearing to such a mind. A non-defective mind is a mind that is not mistaken with respect to its main object, i.e., it is a correct mind whose main object exists. Therefore, since phenomena cannot exist without relying on appearing to a non-defective mind, they are asserted to not exist truly or ultimately. However, according to this tenet, phenomena nevertheless exist inherently, intrinsically and from their own side. If they did not exist inherently, etc., they could not exist at all. Thus, the proponents of the Svatantrika tenet assert that even though phenomena are imputed by conceptual consciousness, they are not merely imputed, for there is something that is found when searching among the basis of imputation of those phenomena. Hence, this tenet claims to avoid the extreme of reification by asserting that all phenomena are empty of existing truly and the extreme of nihilism by asserting that all phenomena exist inherently and intrinsically.
This is the 9th class of the Perfection of Wisdom course addressing the Two Truths, the 1st sub-topic of the 2nd Topic (Mahayana Practice Instructions) of Chapter 1 of Maitreya's Ornament for Clear Realizations.<